New Cybernetics
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"…[the] mathematical and constructive treatment of general structural relations, functions and systems." F. von Cube
Perhaps because the field is still young, there are many definitions of cybernetics. Norbert Wiener, a mathematician, engineer and social philosopher, coined the word "cybernetics" from the Greek word meaning steersman. He defined it as the science of communication and control in the animal and the machine.
Norbert Wiener developed the field of cybernetics, inspiring a generation of scientists to think of computer technology as a means to extend human capabilities.
The original foundation of cybernetics was limited to the observation of the states of a system, by an observer who was considered as impartial and having no effect on the observed system.

New cybernetics:
Includes the observer as a participant in and part of the observed system. “the focus has shifted from communication and control to interaction”[Pask, 1992]. Another interesting aspect of the new cybernetics is the application of elements of chaos theory to how systems create and re-create their own boundaries.
[Pask's primary contribution to cybernetics and systems theory ,as well as to numerous other fields, was his emphasis on the personal nature of reality, and on the process of learning as stemming from the consensual agreement of interacting actors in a given environement.]
[Pask's Conversation Theory is a cybernetic and dialectic framework that offers a scientific theory to explain how interactions lead to "construction of knowledge".]


(:ismini koronidi)
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