Complex Adaptive Systems CAS
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A CAS is a complex, self-similar collection of interacting adaptive agents. It is a dynamic network of many agents acting in parallel, constantly acting/reacting to what the other agents are doing by learning from experience. The control of a CAS tends to be highly dispersed and decentralized; if there is to be any coherent behavior in the system, it has to arise from competition and cooperation among the agents themselves. The overall behavior of the system is the result of a huge number of decisions made every moment by many individual agents.[2]

The study of CAS focuses on complex, emergent and macroscopic properties, seeking the answers to some fundamental questions about living, adaptable and changeable systems.

The term complex adaptive systems (CAS) was coined at the interdisciplinary Santa Fe Institute (SFI), by John H. Holland, Murray Gell-Mann and others.


1. Wikipedia
2. Complexity: The Emerging Science at the Edge of Order and Chaos by M. Mitchell Waldrop.


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